Program, 2023


  • Introduction to TF – Basic concepts and vocabulary (quality, certification, traceability etc.), and technical issues (oscillators, frequency standards, accuracy, stability, phase noise, jitter, physical environment, etc.).
  • Measurement methods and experimental techniques – Spectra (phase noise and L(f), amplitude noise), variances, frequency measurement and comparison.
  • Atomic clocks – Physics, traditional clocks (atomic beam, vapor cell and maser), cold atoms, optical clocks, small-size clocks.
  • Oscillators – RF and microwave oscillators, cavity-stabilized lasers, optical frequency combs.
  • Timing and applications – Time scales, navigation, frequency transfer and synchronization.
  • Physics, applications, and trends.

Hands-on Laboratory Courses

Every day, the participants do real experiments and measurements

  • Frequency stability and AM/PM noise,
  • Data analysis
  • Global Navigation Satellite System GNSS (GPS, Galileo, etc.)
  • Resonators and oscillators
  • Atomic clocks

Social Events and Visits

This part may be the most impacted by COVID-19, if the crisis is not ended

  • Visit at the Observatory of Besancon
  • FEMTO-ST Laboratory Tour
  • Visit at the Time Museum, Besancon downtown
  • Social dinner
  • Astronomy session at the Observatory (depending on weather). Observe celestial bodies, and adjust your watch to stars using the original ancient instruments

Preliminary timetable

Download the preliminary timetable (pdf)

  • current/01_program.txt
  • Last modified: 2023/01/10 14:13
  • by rubiola